Haber Process (Ammonia Manufacturing)

In industry Ammonia NH_{3} ia manufactured on a large scale by using Haber -Bosch Process.

Raw Material :

  • Nitrogen (From Air)
  • Hydrogen (Derived from Natural Gas : Methane)

Physical Characteristic 

  • Other Name : Hydrogen nitride or Trihydrogen nitride or Nitrogen trihydride
  • Molar Mass : 17.031 g/mol
  • Appearance : Colourless
  • Odour : Strong Pungent Smell
  • Solubility in water : 47% w/w (0 °C) ;  31% w/w (25 °C) ;18% w/w (50 °C)
  • Solubility : Soluble in  chloroform, ether, ethanol, methanol
  • Molecular Structure Ammonia


In the Haber Bosch Process  nitrogen reacts with the hydrogen (derived mainly from natural gas : methane) to form ammonia. This reaction is highly reversible exothermic in nature.

Operating Pressure : 200 bar

N_{2} + 3H_{2}\to 2NH_{3}

Haber Bosch Ammonia Process 1
ImageCredit : Graphics – NEED-MEDIA
ammonia 1
ImageCredit : http://ietd.iipnetwork.org

One of the main Byproduct of this is Carbon Dioxide Formation. Ammonia is the main building block for ammonium nitrate fertilizer.

Applications :

  •  Hydrazine and Hydroxylamine are the main derivatives of Ammonia.
  • Fertilizer (90% of ammonia is used in fertilizer industry).


ImageSource : wikipedia

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