## Velocity Boundary Layer

In general, when a fluid flows over a **stationary surface**, e.g. the flat plate, the bed of a river, or the wall of a pipe, the fluid touching the surface is brought to **rest** by the **shear stress** to at the wall. The region in which flow adjusts from zero velocity at the wall to a maximum in the main stream of the flow is termed the **boundary layer**. The concept of boundary layers is of importance in all of viscous fluid dynamics and also in the theory of heat transfer.

## Read Books :

#### Read Also : Laminar Flow vs Turbulent Flow

Basic characteristics of all **laminar and turbulent boundary layers** are shown in the developing flow over a flat plate. The stages of the formation of the boundary layer are shown in the figure below:

**Boundary layers** may be either** laminar**, or **turbulent** depending on the value of **the Reynolds number**.

### Read Also :

#### Venturi Flow Meter

#### Pitot Tube

#### Coriolis Mass Flow Meter

#### Electromagnetic Flow Meters

#### Hydraulic Diameter

## Thermal Boundary Layer

Similarly as a **velocity boundary layer** develops when there is fluid flow over a surface, a **thermal boundary layer** must develop if the bulk temperature and surface temperature differ. Consider flow over an isothermal flat plate at a constant temperature of **T _{wall}**. At the leading edge the temperature profile is uniform with

**T**. Fluid particles that come into contact with the plate achieve thermal equilibrium at the plate’s surface temperature. At this point, energy flow occurs at the surface

_{bulk}**purely by conduction**. These particles exchange energy with those in the adjoining fluid layer (by conduction and diffusion), and temperature gradients develop in the fluid. The region of the fluid in which these temperature gradients exist is the

**thermal boundary layer**. Its

**thickness**,

**δ**, is typically defined as the distance from the body at which the temperature is 99% of the temperature found from an inviscid solution. With increasing distance from the leading edge, the effects of heat transfer penetrate farther into the stream and the thermal boundary layer grows.

_{t}The ratio of these two thicknesses (velocity and thermal boundary layers) is governed by the Prandtl number, which is defined as the** ratio** of **momentum diffusivity** to **thermal diffusivity**. A Prandtl number of unity indicates that momentum and thermal diffusivity are comparable, and velocity and thermal boundary layers almost coincide with each other. If the Prandtl number is less than 1, which is the case for air at standard conditions, the thermal boundary layer is thicker than the velocity boundary layer. If the Prandtl number is greater than 1, the thermal boundary layer is thinner than the velocity boundary layer. Air at room temperature has a **Prandtl number** of **0.71** and for water at 18°C it is around **7.56**, which means that the thermal diffusivity is more dominant for air than for water.

Similarly as for **Prandtl Number**, the **Lewis number** physically relates the relative thickness of the thermal layer and mass-transfer (concentration) boundary layer. The **Schmidt number** physically relates the relative thickness of the velocity boundary layer and mass-transfer (concentration) boundary layer.

where n = 1/3 for most applications in all three relations. These relations, in general, are applicable only for laminar flow and are not applicable to turbulent boundary layers since turbulent mixing in this case may dominate the diffusion processes.

Source Article : Nuclear Power

Image Source : Nuclear Power ; cradle-cfd

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#### Control Loop

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**Valve & Its Types**

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References:

- J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983).
- J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1.
- W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1.
- Glasstone, Sesonske. Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317
- Todreas Neil E., Kazimi Mujid S. Nuclear Systems Volume I: Thermal Hydraulic Fundamentals, Second Edition. CRC Press; 2 edition, 2012, ISBN: 978-0415802871
- Zohuri B., McDaniel P. Thermodynamics in Nuclear Power Plant Systems. Springer; 2015, ISBN: 978-3-319-13419-2
- Moran Michal J., Shapiro Howard N. Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Fifth Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2006, ISBN: 978-0-470-03037-0
- Kleinstreuer C. Modern Fluid Dynamics. Springer, 2010, ISBN 978-1-4020-8670-0.
- U.S. Department of Energy, THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER, AND FLUID FLOW. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1, 2 and 3. June 1992.
- White Frank M., Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill Education, 7th edition, February, 2010, ISBN: 978-0077422417

Utterly written written content, Really enjoyed looking through.